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Mechanisms of cellular stimulation by bacterial endotoxins

mechanisms of cellular stimulation by bacterial endotoxins

Bacterial endotoxins are released into the host organisms when Gram-negative bacteria reproduce or die. The outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria is formed by two layers organized in an asymmetric manner. The main components of the outer part of these two layers are the lipopolysaccharides (LPS), also known as bacterial endotoxins...



The relation of endotoxins with tumor necrosis

the relation of endotoxins with tumor necrosis

The causes of hemorrhagic tumour necrosis were an enigma to scientists until the middle of the last century. A study signed by Carswell et al, which stated that one of the indirect causes of tumour necrosis were bacterial endotoxins, was published in 1975. The authors of this study showed that...



Removing and monitoring bacterial endotoxins in biological samples

bacterial endotoxins elimination and monitoring in biological samples

The removal of bacterial endotoxins from biological samples is a routine practice in many research laboratories. Gram-negative bacteria, where bacterial endotoxins come from, are characterised by their ability to grow in almost all conditions and types of samples where tests are performed in laboratories. Since the pyrogenicity of bacterial endotoxins...



Studies on the effect of bacterial endotoxins on asthma and other respiratory conditions

studies on the effect of bacterial endotoxins on asthma

Bacterial endotoxins are lipopolysaccharides (LPS) that may be present in high concentrations in what is known as organic dust and contaminated air. LPS are derived from the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria and, given their ubiquity, it is very likely that the entire population is exposed to inhaling them even...



The (1, 3) -β-D-glucan and its interference in the LAL test

beta glucans and its interference in the lal test

The (1,3) -β-D-glucan is a polysaccharide found in a variety of plants, fungi and bacteria. This polymer can be found substituted in different positions of the chain, and occurs naturally in different configurations based on the species, depending on the substituents which have the structure and their spatial position relative...



The LAL Test: Precautions to take when conducting research into pharmaceuticals

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For many decades, it has been found that the most effective method for determining pyrogens in pharmaceutical samples, regardless of the form of the active substance, is the LAL (Limulus Amebocyte Lysate) test. Using the LAL test, the presence of bacterial endotoxins, lipopolysaccharide molecules (LPS) that are part of the...



Principles on which the Limulus test for the detection of bacterial endotoxins is based

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The LAL or Limulus test is used for the determination of bacterial endotoxins in a wide variety of samples in both research laboratories and industries. The principle of this test is based on the process of coagulation which occurs in the hemolymph of horseshoe crab (Limulus Polyphemus) in the presence...



The relationship between the chemical nature of bacterial endotoxins and their toxicity and immunogenicity

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The chemical nature of bacterial endotoxins has an effect on the toxicity that these endotoxins cause in other organisms, as well as on the immunogenic effects generated in the organism. In general, bacterial endotoxins are complexes formed by lipopolysaccharide molecules found in the cell membranes of Gram-negative bacteria. The diseases...



6 types of diseases in humans related to endotoxins of Gram-negative bacteria

diseases related to endotoxins of gram negative bacteria

By entering the bloodstream, Gram-negative bacteria cause immune system reactions and lead to the activation of different chains of non-cellular reactions. One of the components of the cell wall of this family of bacteria are lipopolysaccharides, which form complexes of high molecular weight known as bacterial endotoxins, due to the...



Recent research on the issue of bacterial endotoxins

the issue of bacterial endotoxins

Bacterial endotoxins are the most common pyrogens found in pharmaceutical products. These substances are found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and when cell lysis occurs in bacteria, they are released to the environment where the bacteria are located. In mammals, bacterial endotoxins, which are lipopolysaccharide molecules, cause various...