Membrane filtration enhanced by ultrasound for reducing endotoxin in dialysis water

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin, a bacterial by-product, and potential dialysis fluid contaminant is a major concern in dialysis water treatment for the detrimental health effects it represents. This study aims to determine the influence of the ultrasonic-assisted filtration process on endotoxin reduction in dialysis water. In particular, ultrafiltration (UF) and nanofiltration (NF) membranes have been recognized for their capability to reduce endotoxin from synthetic dial- ysis water.

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